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Microstructural and physicochemical properties of heat-moisture treated waxy and normal starches

Abstract
Starches from normal rice (21.72% amylose), waxy rice (1.64% amylose), normal corn (25.19% amylose), waxy corn (2.06% amylose), normal potato (28.97% amylose) and waxy potato (3.92% amylose) were heat-treated at 100 °C for 16 h at a moisture content of 25%. The effect of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on morphology, structure, and physicochemical properties of those starches was investigated. The HMT did not change the size, shape, and surface characteristics of corn and potato starch granules, while surface change/partial gelatinization was found on the granules of rice starches. The X-ray diffraction pattern of normal and waxy potato starches was shifted from B- to C-type by HMT. The crystallinity of the starch samples, except waxy potato starch decreased on HMT. The viscosity profiles changed significantly with HMT. The treated starches, except the waxy potato starch, had higher pasting temperature and lower viscosity. The differences in viscosity values before and after HMT were more pronounced in normal starches than in waxy starches, whereas changes in the pasting temperature showed the reverse (waxy > normal). Shifts of the gelatinization temperature to higher values and gelatinization enthalpy to lower values as well as biphasic endotherms were found in treated starches. HMT increased enzyme digestibility of treated starches (except waxy corn starch); i.e., rapidly and slowly digestible starches increased, but resistant starch decreased. Although there was no absolute consistency on the data obtained from the three pairs of waxy and normal starches, in most cases the effects of HMT on normal starches were more pronounced than the corresponding waxy starches.

Keywords
Heat-moisture treatment; Waxy starch; Normal starch; Amylose; Physicochemical properties; Enzyme digestibility

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